Alexandria was founded in 331 BC by Alexander the Great in the place of the ancient fishing village Rakhotis. The planning of the city was entrusted to the Greek architect Dinocrates.
Alexandria lies at the western extremity of the Nile Delta on the sandy strip of land that separates Lake Mariotes from the Mediterranean Sea. This location was selected for its proximity to Lake Mariotes and the Island of Pharos. The lake was connected to the Nile by a canal, and the island was connected to the coast by a causeway.
The city of Alexandria is famous for its ancient library; the Museion, or museum; the Serapeum, or temple; Pompey's Pillar and the catacombs.