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Irrigation and Water Systems in Egypt
Water Distribution in the Islamic Period
Previous Next: Sultan Al-Nasir Mohammad Ibn Qala'un(Al-Nāşir Muhammad Ibn Qalāqūn)
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From the beginning of the Islamic conquest of Egypt, Muslim kings and sultans built canals, channels, and dams to transport water from the Nile for agriculture, irrigation, and drinking.

Following an order from the Caliph Omar Ibn Al-Khattab, Amr Ibn Al-As rebuilt a canal, originally known as the Sesostris canal, that connected the Nile with the Red Sea, which became known as the Canal of Amir Al-Mo'mineen. The Amir Al-Mo'mineen Canal lasted until the 19th century AD.

The aqueduct of Ibn Tulun is considered the oldest of the remaining aqueducts. It was built by Ahmad Ibn Tulun to transport water to his capital Al-Qata'i.

When Sultan Salah Al-Din built the walls that surrounded Egypt's Islamic capitals, he utilized the roofs as channels to transport the water.

During the Ayyubid period, the ruler Sultan Al-Kamil built channels to transport water to the area of Al-Imam Al-Shafii, where the Sultan's mother was buried in the Mausoleum of Al-Imam Al-Shafii.

Sultan Al-Nasir Mohammad Ibn Qala'un built an aqueduct, a structure for carrying a large quantity of flowing water, to transport water to the Citadel.

In addition, in 712 after Hijra (AD 1312), he built four water wheels on the Nile to transport water along the aqueduct to the Citadel.

In 728 after Hijra (AD 1327), Al-Nasir Mohammad dug a channel from Helwan to the Red Mountain which overlooks Cairo so water could reach the midan, or square, that he built within the Citadel area.

In the year 741 after Hijra (AD 1340), Al-Nasir Mohammad added another well to the channel and built aqueducts to connect with old aqueducts that stretched from the river to the Citadel area.

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