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Arabic Trade's Influence on International Languages

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Glossary

Abbasid

Abbasid is the second Islamic dynasty. This Arabic family was descended from Abbas, the uncle of the Prophet Muhammad. The Abbasids ruled in Egypt in AD 750-868 and AD 905-935.

caliph

a successor of the Prophet Muhammad and head of the Islamic community; traditionally always male

Coptic

It is a name for Egyptians of the Christian faith and their Church. It is also the name for the last form of the ancient Egyptian language, which was written with mostly Greek letters. The Coptic language survives only as a liturgical language of the Coptic Orthodox Church.

diwan

Muslim administrative offices of the state or the sovereign's council of state

Hijra

Emigration of the Prophet Muhammad and his followers from Mecca to Medina in AD 622.

Ibn

Arabic for "son of"

Islam

the name of a religion that is centered on the Qur'an, the word of God as passed through the Prophet Muhammad

Muslim

a Muslim is a follower of the Islamic faith

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Spread of the Arabic Language
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The Arabic language became more widespread in Egypt with the introduction of Islam, especially since there was only one Egyptian language.

The Coptic language was limited and unofficial, followed by the official Greek language, and then the Arabic language entered Egypt starting in the seventh century AD/ first Century after Hijra.

Arabic is a rich and complete language and the people were able to express everything using it. Arabic became the language of the diwan, or council of ministers, and the language of instruction.

With the advent of the tenth century AD, fourth century after Hijra, Coptic scholars started to compose theological works in Arabic, which indicates that Arabic had become the prevalent language of scholarship.

The Coptic language lost its importance totally during the fourth century after Hijra (tenth century AD), as we find the Coptic books by Said Ibn Al-Batreek and Sawerace Al Ashmony were written in the Arabic language although they were intended for a Coptic audience.

The spread of Islam and the Arabic language in Egypt was helped by Caliph Abd al-Malik Ibn Marawan's arabization of the "Mint" and "Diwans" in the government offices in year 78 after Hijra The Copts were forced to learn the Arabic language to keep their jobs in the government offices. Then Abbasid Caliph Al-Mustasim decided to lay off Arab employees from the government offices. The Arabs and the Copts became equal and the obstacles between the two sides were removed. The Arabs then spread among the Egyptians.

Within 400 years, from the Arab conquest of Egypt, Egypt abandoned its national language totally and adopted the Arabic language, while other Muslim countries such as Iran did not give up their national language.

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Al-Imam Al-Shafii(Al-I'mām Al-Ŝāf̉̉i)
Al-Imam Al-Shafii(Al-I'mām Al-Ŝāf̉̉i)

Sultan Zahir Rukn Al-Din Baybars
Sultan Zahir Rukn Al-Din Baybars

Dinar with Al-Ikhlas Surah
Dinar with Al-Ikhlas Surah

Qur'an Manuscript in Simple Kufi
Qur'an Manuscript in Simple Kufi

Scale Weight
Scale Weight

Cenotaph of Imam al-Hussein
Cenotaph of Imam al-Hussein

Linen Textile Fragment with Bands of Floral and Animal Decoration
Linen Textile Fragment with Bands of Floral and Animal Decoration

Piece of  Ayyubid Linen Textile
Piece of Ayyubid Linen Textile

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