In the Mamluk era, a cultural movement flourished as a famous Egyptian school was established, specializing in the composition of encyclopedias in many fields, including cultural, political, historical, social, and humanitarian.
The head of this school in Egypt was Shehab Al Din Al Nowairy. His famous encyclopedia was called "Nehayat Al Erab fi Funun Al Adab" or "The End of Adroitness in the Arts of Literature." It was considered an important work and was translated into the Latin language beginning in the eighteenth century. Ibn Danial, who died in 710 after Hijra (AD 1310), one of the most famous authors and doctors of Egypt in the Mamluk era, was the author of the first attempt at a shadow play in the Middle Ages. These plays were between poems and prose in form. Another important work written in the eighth century after Hijra (fourteenth century AD) is the "Alf Lela We Lela" or "Arabian Nights," which contained many Egyptian tales.
In the Mamluk era, the sultans, princes, and high officials patronized scientists and poets as a symbol of honor and nobility. Many authors and poets lived in the houses and palaces of sultans and princes.
Prose and poetry flourished. Writers were also needed in the composition office, such as the author Ibn Abd Al Zaher, who died in 692 after Hijra (AD 1293). He was a professional who was appointed by Sultan Baybars as a writer in the composition office.
Poetry in the Mamluk era reflects the social, political, cultural, and economical structures of the time.
Literary and poetic rivalries flourished and the most famous poets in the Mamluk era were Ibn Al Gazar, Ibn Al Warak, and Al Menawy the Egyptian. Salah Al Safedee became famous as one of the most important compilers in the Mamluk era. Historical events and monuments in Egypt were related very well to poetry. Praise was written for Sultan Baybars Al-Bunduqdari at the opening of Al Zaheria school and for Sultan Barquq for the opening of his school in bayn Al Qasrean. Ibn Iyas recited a poem for Sultan Al-Ghawri after he finished building a stone bench, even though the poets around Sultan Al-Ghawri were both praising and defaming him.
When one of the minarets of the Sultan Hassan Mosque fell down in 762 after Hijra (AD 1361), people considered it was a symbol of the decline of the state. However, the poet Bahaa el Dean Al Sobky, who died in 773 after Hijra (AD 1372) turned this incident into good news for the Sultan and the state, by saying that the falling of the minaret was for the Glory of the Qur'an which had been read under it.