Ancient Egyptians grew three kinds of wheat, which are now known as einkorn, emmer, and spelt. Einkorn is a primitive one-grained typed of wheat. Emmer wheat is identified by spikelets with two hard red kernels that remain after threshing. Spelt has spikelets containing two light red kernels. Barley was another important grain. Both barley and wheat were used to make bread and beer.
In small gardens or as a second crop, Egyptians grew many vegetables including onions, garlic, leeks, Egyptian lettuce, radishes, cabbage, asparagus, cucumbers, lentils, peas, beans, and many spices. They grew sesame, flax, and castor-oil seeds to extract the oils. Grapevines were grown in separate vineyards but were also found in most gardens. Dates, figs, pomegranates, and melons were also cultivated.
Ancient Egyptians devoted land to flax, which was the main raw material for textiles. Papyrus, which grew in the marsh land along the Nile, was gathered and made into paper, mats, and sandals. After the Arab conquest, new crops such as rice and sugarcane were introduced in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries AD.