Abydos is the Greek name of the ancient Egyptian town called Abdju. It was the capital of the eighth nome of Upper Egypt and the main cult center of Osiris. Within the region, there are many archaeological sites.
Before the reign of the Eighteenth Dynasty, Lower Egypt and parts of Middle Egypt were occupied by the Hyksos. Ahmose the First fought the Hyksos and chased them out of Egypt. He is considered to be the founder of the Eighteenth Dynasty and the first king of the New Kingdom.
Akhenaten, or Amenhotep the Fourth, was the son and heir of Amenhotep the Third. He married the famous Nefertiti and had six daughters. During the fourth year of his reign, he moved the capital of Egypt to Akhetaten, modern day Tell el-Amarna.
The ancient Egyptians slept on beds covered with mattresses and provided with headrests. It is believed that the headrest allowed air to circulate round the neck of the sleeper, or kept his hairstyle in shape. In this headrest, the base, the shaft and the neck support are carved from the same block.
Most offering tables were cut in a rectangular shape, but this one is circular. The lower part of the table is carved with the traditional Hetep hieroglyphic sign, which means "offering." The upper surface is carved with vessels and there are holes cut into the surface so that liquids, such as water, beer or wine, could be poured on the table.
Although there are no inscriptions on this alabaster statue to identify its owner, it appears from the posture that it represents a king of the Old Kingdom in the traditional pose. He is depicted seated on a backless throne, wearing the royal headdress, the nemes, adorned with the royal cobra (uraeus), the false beard and the pleated royal kilt called the shendyt.
King Amenemhat the Third of the Twelfth Dynasty ruled Egypt for about 45 years, during which time Egypt enjoyed prosperity and peace inside and outside the country. Amenemhat the Third was very interested in agriculture.