Abydos is the Greek name of the ancient Egyptian town called Abdju. It was the capital of the eighth nome of Upper Egypt and the main cult center of Osiris. Within the region, there are many archaeological sites.
Alexandria was founded in 331 BC by Alexander the Great. The planning of the city was entrusted to the Greek architect Dinocrates. The city of Alexandria is famous for its ancient library; the Museion, or museum; the Serapeum, or temple; Pompey's Pillar and the catacombs.
Next to the processional causeway of King Unas, one meter and a half from the remains of the funerary temple, there are two large boat-shaped pits; each is about 44m long and the shapes are similar to the five boat pits found near the Pyramid of King Khufu.
Faiyum is an oasis in the western desert, about 90 kilometers or 56 miles southwest of Cairo. Faiyum was developed by the kings of the Middle Kingdom who started great irrigation and cultivation projects at this site.
To the east side of the great courtyard of the King Djoser complex and parallel to it, there is a rectangular courtyard called the Heb-Sed court. The Heb-Sed was a royal festival held every 30 years to celebrate the jubilee of the pharaoh.
The ancient Egyptian name for Heliopolis was Iunu or On. It is one of the oldest cities in Egypt. It became known as Heliopolis, or the "city of the sun," during the Greek period. Heliopolis is situated on the northeast outskirts of Cairo amid the well-cultivated fields.
In the desert of the great necropolis of Saqqara, the visitor is astonished to see a hemicycle containing a group of standing and seated statues, the style of which is not Egyptian. It is the remains of a Greek monument that was constructed and decorated by King Ptolemy the first (Soter). It is now protected from erosion by a cement awning.
Meidum lies about 50 kilometers or 31 miles southwest of Cairo. This site contains several great monuments. These include the Meidum Pyramid that was attributed to King Senefru, as well as some famous tombs such as the tombs of Nefer-maat and Itet, from which came the painting known as the Geese of Meidum.
Before 3000 BC, Egypt was divided into two kingdoms, Lower and Upper Egypt. After the unification of these two parts by King Menes, it was necessary to establish a new capital for the unified country. Starting from the Old Kingdom, the capital was called Mennefer, pronounced afterward by the Greeks as Memphis.