Abydos is the Greek name of the ancient Egyptian town called Abdju. It was the capital of the eighth nome of Upper Egypt and the main cult center of Osiris. Within the region, there are many archaeological sites.
The site of the Karnak Temples is an open natural museum of Ancient Egyptian history. It contains a mixture of the different architectural styles built by the kings who ruled the country from the Twelfth Dynasty until the Greco-Roman times.
The temple of Medinet Habu is one of the most impressive structures west of Thebes. It was built for Ramesses the Third as a mortuary temple. The work was done under the direction of the treasurer, Amun Amonmose.
The Avenue of Sphinxes at the Luxor Temple was a double line of human-headed sphinxes. On feast days, priests paraded along this avenue, carrying the wooden barks, or small ships, that held shrines containing the statues of the deities Amun-Re, Mut, and Khonsu.
Scenes in relief on the walls of the Great Court of Ramesses the Second portray the festivals celebrated by the royal family and officials. The court is surrounded by a double row of columns and the southern end has huge standing statues of Ramesses the Second.
The northeastern portion of the Great Court of Ramesses the Second contains the mosque of the Muslim saint Sidi Abul Haggag. It has a view of the back of the east tower of the pylon, or temple gateway, which is inscribed with two important scenes.
The northwestern part of the Great Court of Ramesses the Second contains the triple shrine that housed the wooden bark, or small ship, that held the statues of the three deities Amun-Re, Mut, and Khonsu.
The southwestern wall of the Great Court of Ramesses the Second shows the pylon, or temple gateway, being approached by princes and high officials bringing ornamented bulls for sacrifice. From the horns of the bulls emerge the king's enemies, identified by their ethnic features.
Sennedjem was the chief artisan in the Theban necropolis during the reigns of Seti the First and Ramesses the Second. His title was "servant in the Place of Truth." His tomb was found intact in A.D. 1886 in the Valley of Artisans, near the Valley of the Queens.
The Valley of the Kings took its name from the furnished rock-cut tombs for the kings of the Eighteenth, Nineteenth, and Twentieth Dynasties. At least 26 of the 32 rulers of these dynasties were buried in the Valley of the Kings. It lies about six kilometers or four miles from the western bank of the Nile at Thebes.