Faiyum is an oasis in the western desert, about 90 kilometers or 56 miles southwest of Cairo. Faiyum was developed by the kings of the Middle Kingdom who started great irrigation and cultivation projects at this site.
The ancient Egyptian name for Heliopolis was Iunu or On. It is one of the oldest cities in Egypt. It became known as Heliopolis, or the "city of the sun," during the Greek period. Heliopolis is situated on the northeast outskirts of Cairo amid the well-cultivated fields.
The site of the Karnak Temples is an open natural museum of Ancient Egyptian history. It contains a mixture of the different architectural styles built by the kings who ruled the country from the Twelfth Dynasty until the Greco-Roman times.
Before 3000 BC, Egypt was divided into two kingdoms, Lower and Upper Egypt. After the unification of these two parts by King Menes, it was necessary to establish a new capital for the unified country. Starting from the Old Kingdom, the capital was called Mennefer, pronounced afterward by the Greeks as Memphis.