Abydos is the Greek name of the ancient Egyptian town called Abdju. It was the capital of the eighth nome of Upper Egypt and the main cult center of Osiris. Within the region, there are many archaeological sites.
Next to the processional causeway of King Unas, one meter and a half from the remains of the funerary temple, there are two large boat-shaped pits; each is about 44m long and the shapes are similar to the five boat pits found near the Pyramid of King Khufu.
To the east side of the great courtyard of the King Djoser complex and parallel to it, there is a rectangular courtyard called the Heb-Sed court. The Heb-Sed was a royal festival held every 30 years to celebrate the jubilee of the pharaoh.
The ancient Egyptian name for Heliopolis was Iunu or On. It is one of the oldest cities in Egypt. It became known as Heliopolis, or the "city of the sun," during the Greek period. Heliopolis is situated on the northeast outskirts of Cairo amid the well-cultivated fields.
The mastaba is a double tomb, which belonged to two dignitaries who lived during the fifth dynasty: Akhethotep and his son Ptah-hotep. The principal titles of Akhet-hotep were vizier and judge, as well as "supervisor of prophets of the pyramids of Nyussere, Djedkare Isesi, and Menkaure."
The mastaba was originally built by the vizier Ihy who lived during the reign of King Unas in the late Fifth Dynasty; it was later usurped by Princess Sesh-seshet, whose title was "the daughter of the king". She is known as Idut.
Iru-ke-Ptah was the chief of the royal abattoirs during the Fifth Dynasty. The upper part of his mastaba is composed of one elongated piece, carved in the native rock. It has become well known for the great number of statues cut into the rock, which was rarely done; there are eight statues on the left wall and four on the right.
In A.D. 1940, the Egyptian Antiquities Service excavated the important mastaba of the vizier Mehu, who lived during the Sixth Dynasty. Its importance is due to the perfect condition of its painted decorations, especially those of the offering chapel in which the colors are intact.
A mastaba that belonged to Nefer-her-en-Ptah who lived during the Fifth Dynasty. On the uppermost panel of the western wall, there is a splendid large scene of bird hunting that gives the tomb the name of "the bird tomb."
A mastaba that belonged to two dignitaries who must have lived during the Fifth Dynasty since their titles are "the prophets of Ra in the sun temple of King Nyussere". However, their real job was as the chiefs of the manicurists of the great house (that is, the royal palace). Most probably they were brothers, perhaps even twins, as they are depicted on the walls of the tomb with the same features.
Before 3000 BC, Egypt was divided into two kingdoms, Lower and Upper Egypt. After the unification of these two parts by King Menes, it was necessary to establish a new capital for the unified country. Starting from the Old Kingdom, the capital was called Mennefer, pronounced afterward by the Greeks as Memphis.
The processional causeway of King Unas is about 1km long. It connected the funerary temple of the king located directly next the east of the pyramid, with his valley temple. The entrance to the archeological site of Saqqara is by the temple.