Abydos is the Greek name of the ancient Egyptian town called Abdju. It was the capital of the eighth nome of Upper Egypt and the main cult center of Osiris. Within the region, there are many archaeological sites.
Before 3000 BC, Egypt was divided into two kingdoms, Lower and Upper Egypt. After the unification of these two parts by King Menes, it was necessary to establish a new capital for the unified country. Starting from the Old Kingdom, the capital was called Mennefer, pronounced afterward by the Greeks as Memphis.
Saqqara lies about 35 kilometers or 22 miles southwest of Giza. Here are pyramid complexes of famous kings of the Third, Fifth, and Sixth Dynasties, as well as mastaba-tombs of the high officials. Tombs or cenotaphs of kings of the Early Dynastic era are also located at Saqqara.