The Valley of the Kings took its name from the furnished rock-cut tombs for the kings of the Eighteenth, Nineteenth, and Twentieth Dynasties. At least 26 of the 32 rulers of these dynasties were buried in the Valley of the Kings. It lies about six kilometers or four miles from the western bank of the Nile at Thebes.
Giza was chosen by King Khufu and his successors, Khafra and Menkaure, to erect their funerary complexes. The site also contains the tombs of the courtiers of the Fourth Dynasty and those of the workmen.
Saqqara lies about 35 kilometers or 22 miles southwest of Giza. Here are pyramid complexes of famous kings of the Third, Fifth, and Sixth Dynasties, as well as mastaba-tombs of the high officials. Tombs or cenotaphs of kings of the Early Dynastic era are also located at Saqqara.
The Step Pyramid Complex was built for King Djoser of the Third Dynasty by his Vizier, Imhotep, at Saqqara. It was copied after the existing structures of Egypt's capital in order for the pharaoh to repeat his earthly experience in the afterlife.