Abdel Rahman bin Abdel Hakam was the first historian to record Islamic Egyptian history in a unique form, using selections from the narratives of general Islamic history. His family was deeply rooted in prestigious studies and in science.
Al-Baghdadi(Al-Baģdādί) was born in Baghdad. He studied the sciences of the Hadith(Hadίŧ), the Qur'an, and Islamic doctrine. He also acquired literature from Egyptian scholars and studied the books of Aristotle. He then went to Damascus, where he studied medicine. He traveled to various places in the Islamic world, and met with scholars and rulers. The corpus of al-Baghdadi's work amounts to some 173 works in linguistics, doctrine, medicine, zoology, mathematics, and travel.
Al-Maqrizi, the leader of the Islamic Egyptian historians was born and raised in Cairo and studied in Al-Azhar under the supervision of the masters and scholars of his age. He specialized in the study of jurisprudence, the Hadith and the science of religion. He excelled in literature, prose and poetry. He was appointed more than once as a preacher and he obtained other administrative positions in Cairo and Damascus. The historical importance of Al-Maqrizi is found in the new and original methods of his historical researches that were unusual to his ancestors.
Al-Siouty was born in a house near the Mosque of Ibn-Tulun. He lost his father before he was six. He was an intelligent child and excelled in learning by heart and in the study of doctrine, the Hadith, the sciences of the Quran, logic, and medicine. He made several educational trips out of Egypt. When he reached the age of forty he devoted himself to the worship of God, isolating himself from the world. He then wrote his books, which came to more than five hundred compositions.
Ibn Duqmaq was the grandson of one of the amirs during the reign of Sultan Al-Nasir Mohammad Ibn Qala'un. He was in the army for many years but he was passionate about science and literature, so he deserted the army to pursue these passions. He studied the Hanifi doctrine for a time under Hanifi scholars, and was interested in literature, also for a while, after which he became wholly engaged in history and devoted his life to the subject.
The family to which Ibn Yunus belonged played an important role in the cultural life of Islamic Egypt, between the third and fifth centuries after Hijra. Ibn Yunus Al-Muarekh was the grandson of a friend of Al-Imam Al-Shafii, and a narrator of the Hadith of the Prophet. He was also the father of the famous Egyptian astronomer Ali Ibn Yunus.
Ibn-Ayyaas was born in Cairo into a circassian family. The members of his family had held leading positions in Egypt and Syria since the middle of the eighth century AH. He was the last leader of the Egyptian School for National History, headed by al-Maqrizi. He studied the doctrine and history but unlike his ancestors, he did not excel in a specific branch of art or literature, although he was particularly inclined towards history and geography.
Ibn-Taghr Bardi was born in a district near the Citadel. He was brought up in a distinguished aristocratic family. His father was the head of the army of Al-Zahir Barquq. Ibn-Taghr Bardi studied doctrine, grammar, Hadith and history. His education in the royal court and his proficiency in the Turkish language, gave him the opportunity to penetrate the delicate affairs of state and politics. That also influenced his historical researches.
Ismail Abul Feda was a politician, a man of letters, and a scholar. He was a descendent of the old Ayyubid family. His grandfather was Salah Al-Din Al-Ayyubi. Abul Feda was one of the princes of the Damascus group. These princes were under the authority of Al-Nasir Mohammad who gave Abul Feda the kingdom of Hamah and also the title of King Al-Muayyad. Abul Feda excelled in astronomy, in the science of Islamic doctrine, in the Arabic language, and in history and geography.
Shams Al-Din Al-Sakhawy (Ŝams Al-Dίn Al-Saĥāwy)was born in the lane of Bahaa' Al-Din near Bab Al-Futuh (Bāb al-futūh)in Cairo. Later, he moved into a house next to the house of the scholar Ibn-Haggar Al-Asqalani. This event had an immense effect on his cultural formation. He studied the Qur'an, grammar, prosody, linguistics, jurisprudence, arithmetic and logic. His book "Al-E'laan Bel Tawbeekh Lemann Dhamm Al-Tareekh" (Al-ỉalaān Bāl Tawbίĥ Liman Đam Al-Tāriĥ)(He who dispraises history should be scolded) is considered to be his masterpiece. It has no previous match in the philosophy of history.
Shehab is one of the most notable authors of Egyptian encyclopedias. He was concerned with administrative life for a period of time, but then he became absorbed in writing his encyclopedia, "Nihayt Al Arab Fi Fonoun Al-Adab", or "The Utmost Skills in Arts."
Shehab al-Din Abul Fadl Al-Asqalany was born in the city of Al-Fustat. He lost both his parents when he was still a child and was sponsored by Zakei Al-Din Al-Kharrouby, a prominent karimi merchant in Egypt. Ibn Haggar went to Mecca to study the Hadith. When he returned to Cairo, he became famous as a scholar of the Hadith, so that Al-Siouty said of him "He is the ultimate leader of the Hadith all over the world", and he became known as "The Keeper".
Born about 431 BC, Xenophon was one of the most trusted disciples of Socrates. The turning point in his career came when he decided to serve in the Greek army raised by Cyrus the Younger against the king, Artaxerxes in 401 BC.